Here is how I managed to save time on my PHP project by enabling restarting services automatically during deployment.
Basic capistrano configuration
When I work on PHP projects I deploy using Capistrano, a tool that enables scripting of deployment tasks. During my previous project, I had to manually log in to my server and restart the php-fpm service after each deployment. I wasted almost one hour of my time every week running
sudo service php5-fpm restart 10 times a day. Moreover, every once in a while I forgot to restart the service and I had to spend 30 minutes more to find out why I couldn’t see my new feature on my website.
To save time, I wanted capistrano to do it for me:
task :restart_php do on roles(:app) do execute "sudo service php5-fpm restart" end end
To do so, I needed superuser permissions. I considered giving sudo rights to the application user, but this would represent a major security issue: say there is a security breach on your application that enables an attacker to take control over the application user, they could take control over the whole server.
A solution is to grant superuser permission on a specific command.
Introducing the /etc/sudoers file and visudo command
Log in to your server as root and run
sudo visudo. Visudo enables you to edit the
/etc/sudoers file, in which your computer grants superuser permissions.
I added the following line:
www-data ALL=(root) NOPASSWD: /usr/sbin/service php5-fpm restart
The line is divided into 4 parts:
- www-data is the user you want to grant permissions to.
- ALL filters users logged in from ALL hosts name
- (root) www-data has root permissions on the following command
- NOPASSWD: /usr/sbin/service php5-fpm restart enables www-data to run only this exact command
/usr/sbin/service php5-fpm restartwithout being asked any password.
You can now understand why this line in the file is the source of root superpowers:
root ALL=(ALL) ALL
With great power comes great responsibilities
Before you enable all users to run sudo commands without being asked any password (which is possible but strongly advised against), take caution using visudo: granting superuser commands must be used with parcimony.
Finally, you may ask yourself why I used
visudo instead of
vim /etc/sudoers file. Never edit directly the
/etc/sudoers file. Visudo includes checks before saving the edited file: it prevents it from syntax errors that would cause major superuser problems on your computer.